A description of decubitus ulcers also known as bedsores
Reduce shear and friction — Avoid dragging the person across the bed sheets.
Decubitus ulcer treatment
In people confined to bed, bedsores are most common over the hip, spine, lower back, tailbone, shoulder blades, elbows and heels. An inability to feel pain or discomfort can result in not being aware of warning signs and the need to change position. Use sheepskin boots and elbow pads to reduce friction on heels and elbows. Once you have developed a pressure ulcer, it's important that you minimise or avoid putting any further pressure on it to give the wound the best chance of healing. The newer treatment options such as negative pressure wound therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, cell therapy have been discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of current and newer methods have also been described. Signs of infection in a bedsore can include: Pus draining from the sore A foul smelling odor Tenderness, heat and increased redness in the surrounding skin Fever Diagnosis A doctor or nurse can diagnose a bedsore by examining the skin. When you find signs of skin damage, you can take steps to prevent areas of redness from becoming full-blown ulcers. Ask for help with repositioning about once an hour. As the tailbone moves down, the skin over the bone might stay in place — essentially pulling in the opposite direction. A process to remove dead or infected tissue called debridement may be recommended by your doctor. Medical conditions affecting blood flow. The pain of tissue ischaemia ensures that these patients frequently ask for their position to be changed. Bone and joint infection Infection can also spread from a pressure ulcer into underlying joints septic arthritis and bones osteomyelitis. Keep the skin clean and dry — Clean with plain water and if needed a very gentle soap.
Friction: For some patients, especially those with thin, frail skin and poor circulation, turning and moving may damage the skin, raising the risk of bedsores. Outlook Stage 2 bedsores can heal within 1 to 6 weeksbut ulcers that reach stage 3 or 4 may take several months, or they may never heal, especially in people with ongoing health problems.
Cellulitis Infection can spread from the site of the pressure ulcer to a deeper layer of skin. This can result in damage to cartilage and tissue, and a reduction in limb and joint function.
Prevention Bedsores can still form even if a patient is receiving excellent medical care or household care — they are not necessarily a sign of neglected needs.
Nutrition Certain dietary supplements, such as protein, zinc and vitamin C, have been shown to accelerate wound healing.
Pressure ulcer grading pictures
Seek immediate medical care if you show signs of infection, such as a fever, drainage from a sore, a sore that smells bad, or increased redness, warmth or swelling around a sore. Injured tissue can develop an infection. The bacteria thrive in environments where there is little or no oxygen. If you're recovering from illness or surgery at home, or are caring for someone confined to bed or a wheelchair, ask your GP for an assessment of the risk of developing pressure ulcers. Without these essential nutrients, skin and nearby tissues are damaged and might eventually die. Change bedding and clothing frequently if needed. Shear occurs when two surfaces move in the opposite direction.
Table 1 Open in a separate window Pressure As the living tissues are not static, the way they are distorted change over time. Pressure ulcers are largely preventable in nature, and their management depends on their severity.
Nutrition Eating a healthy, balanced diet that contains an adequate amount of protein and a good variety of vitamins and minerals can help prevent skin damage and speed up the healing process.
Loss of sensation compounds the problem manifold, and failure of reactive hyperaemia cycle of the pressure prone area remains the most important aetiopathology.
based on 76 review